It seems to me a most interesting evaluation in many aspects. I was totally unaware of the possibility of Ashkenaz -i deriving from a Persian concept it's generally assumed to mean Germany but the most informative part is the frequencies of "R1a-M within R1a1 individuals", which is highly suggestive of that Iranic origin.
This seems another example of the Hellenistic Jewish "diaspora" largely based on conversions and growingly influential and of which Christianity and Islam must be considered in essence mere offshoots. Michal's suggestion is that these were probably converts to Judaism that went back to Jerusalem with Ezra after their exile.
Anatolia was a major and diverse center of the Jewish diaspora and, as we know, it was also the main original center of Christian expansion both things are intimately related as the bulk of earliest Christians were Jews, being Christianism then just one of several Jewish sects, all them actively proselytistic.
So the "Kurdish" Levites do not need to have gone through Palestine at all. In fact, it is very possible that they were incorporated to the priestly caste as part of the deals implicated in the conversion of Adiabene.
I don't know this for a fact but within the extensive discussions regarding the Khazar hypothesis, it became clear that this actually happened in Khazaria, so why not in Kurdistan? So, the similarities between Jews and Iranians could be older than Adiabene. Since no other paternal or maternal haplogroup among Ashkenazim comes from a Central Asian Turkic source either, we are now left with the total absence of evidence for Khazar ancestry in Ashkenazi Jews.
I had researched the possibility of Khazar ancestry for 20 years. In the paper they distinguish between Jews that migrated to Israel in the last decades e. From all tested "Jews from Israel" only two turned out be R1a1. That's interesting, so you're saying that R1a-M is present in Jewish populations that aren't only Ashkenazi Levites. So the Kurdish theory is starting to make more sense than the Khazar theory.
Intresting thesis, and quite a compelling argument. Is there any etymological evidence? Pott Etymologische Forschungen, ii. Aeschylus Aesch. Lion says, that Arsaces was the original name of Artaxerxes Mnemon.
I'm surpsied that R2 isn't mentioned in this research considering your topic. Total Pageviews. From the paper: Phylogenetic applications of whole Y-chromosome sequences and the Near Eastern origin of Ashkenazi Levites Considering the historical records of Ashkenazi Jews, three potential geographic sources should be considered: the Near Eastwhich was the geographic location for the ancient Hebrews; Europewhich was the residence of the Ashkenazi Jewish Diaspora and the region in which they evolved for nearly two millennia; and the region overlapping with the no longer extant midth Century Khazarian Khaganatewhose ruling class has been suggested to have converted to Judaism Our data render the latter source highly unlikely since the Khazarian Khaganate overlapped with the Northern Pontic-Caspian steppe and the North Caucasus region, in which just one Nogay sample carried the R1a-M haplogroup Table 1.
Furthermore, the Nogays, formerly a powerful Kipchak Turkic-speaking nomadic confederation, are relatively recent inhabitants of the Caucasus, and the STR haplotype of the sole R1a-M Nogay sample lies outside of the Levite cluster. Had the Caucasus region been the source for the Ashkenazi modal lineage, we likely would have found R1a-M Y-chromosomes in some of its 20 local populations examined in our sample of more than 2, Y-chromosomes Table 1.
As previously suggested, the European and particularly, the Eastern European paternal gene pool was seen as a natural and highly plausible source for the Ashkenazi Levite lineage as both the Ashkenazi community and haplogroup R1a frequencies peak in this region. But surprisingly, haplogroup R1a-M was not detected in non-Jewish Eastern European samples and was found only in singleton samples in various Central and Western European populations Table 1.Marker site numbers shown in blue.
Marker values shown in yellow. Lemuel moved to central Georgia and next generations mostly there. Resident of Columbia Co. Banks Project Site. Search this site. Adam Banks Problems. Bankses in American History. Coats of Arms.Гены башкир R1b, R1a и N1c
Compilation British Isles Bankses. Compilation North American Bankses. DNA project explanation. DNA results overview.
Emigrants from s England. Emigrants from Ireland. Emigrants from n. Emigrants from Scandinavia. Emigrants from Scotland. Emigrants from Wales. Pictures of Bankses. The E-M group. The E-M84 group. The E-M96 group.
The E-U groups.
The E-V13 group. The G-L group. The G-Z group. The I-L group. The I-L22 group. The I-M group. The I-P group. The I-P groups. The J-L group. The J-M group. The non-Banks groups. The Q-M3 group.While R1a originated ca. Karafet et al. The split of R1a M is computed to ca.
A large, study by Peter A. Underhill et al. According to Underhillthe downstream R1a-M subclade diversified into Z and Z93 circa 5, years ago. In Europe, Z is prevalent particularly while in Asia Z93 dominates. Zerjal and colleagues in Ornella Semino et al.
Three genetic studies in gave support to the Kurgan theory of Gimbutas regarding the Indo-European Urheimat. According to those studies, haplogroups R1b and R1a, now the most common in Europe R1a is also common in South Asia would have expanded from the Russian steppes, along with the Indo-European languages; they also detected an autosomal component present in modern Europeans which was not present in Neolithic Europeans, which would have been introduced with paternal lineages R1b and R1a, as well as Indo-European languages.
This raises the question where the R1a1a in the Corded Ware culture came from, if it was not from the Yamnaya culture. Semenov and Bulat do argue for such an origin of R1a1a in the Corded ware culture, noting that several publications point to the presence of R1a1 in the Comb Ware culture.
Haak et al. Part of the South Asian genetic ancestry derives from west Eurasian populations, and some researchers have implied that Z93 may have come to India via Iran  and expanded there during the Indus Valley Civilisation. Mascarenhas et al. According to Underhill et al. Yet, according to Narasimhan et al. Kivisild et al. South Asian populations have the highest STR diversity within R1a1a,       and subsequent older TMRCA datings, [note 11] and R1a1a is present among both higher Brahmin castes and lower castes, although the presence is substantially higher among Brahmin castes.
However, this diversity, and the subsequent older TMRCA-datings, can also be explained by the historically high population numbers, which increases the likelihood of diversification and microsatellite variation.
Richards, co-author of Silva et al. The R1a family tree now has three major levels of branching, with the largest number of defined subclades within the dominant and best known branch, R1a1a which will be found with various names; in particular, as "R1a1" in relatively recent but not the latest literature. The topology of R1a is as follows codes [in brackets] non-isogg codes :      Tatiana et al.
R2 M R1a is distinguished by several unique markers, including the M mutation. It is a subclade of Haplogroup R-M previously called R1. In the scheme, this SRY Testing of more males in 73 other Eurasian populations showed no sign of this category. R1a1 is defined by SRY This family of lineages is dominated by M17 and MMaju you're full of it, as usual. Z, M and ancestral lineages of Z93 all overlap in Europe. Not even in Inner or Central Asia as this paper claims.
Therefore, R1a expanded deep into Asia from somewhere in Europe. Here's the latest tree you clown. I'd appreciate if you tone down your comments a bit. Anyhow, what percentage of South Asian R1a belongs to the sub-haplogroups that we know are mostly from that region? Because research bias is important in discerning subhaplogroups existence altogether you know or should know that well. IF you can show me as a matter of fact that most South Asian R1a or R1a1 belongs to the haplogroups already discovered, I would be the first to acknowledge because, when research is throughout, basal haplogroup diversity should be most informative, well above STR structure or estimated diversity.
So far I don't see that and instead there have been two papers Underhill's and another one which had found that the deepest apparent R1a sublineages were from South Asia as well - can't recall the author right now but I'm sure you will. But prove me wrong, of course. I believe we already discussed that, in parts of Europe, it looks like R1a-M could be related to Kurgan expansion Corded Ware specificallyspecially because it's found at higher frequencies in Greek Macedonia than in all the Slavic Balcans, what make it a very unlikely "Slavic" clade.
Anyhow, how can be a lineage that allegedly expanded c. You should try to be more internally consistent at the very least. So you would need a major shift in results to back up what you'd like to see. I think the theory that R1a originated in South Asia is a dud, and it's only around due to the fact that STR diversity was wrongly assumed to mean anything in this context. That probably means Z93 also comes from Europe.
Actually it was easier than I thought to find the top level paragroups data, because Underhill already worked that see supp. So it'd seem that the expansion happened at the R1a1a level and also maybe at the same time at the immediately lower levels. But I see no signature of IE expansion in it, sincerely.
I see no data supporting a Europe-to-India pattern, sorry but a radial from West Asia one instead.
You could argue for a Neolithic origin, I guess. Don't worry, you'll get it eventually when more stuff comes out. No point arguing about it now. I worry that you state claims without evidence. It's not just annoying but says little about the quality of your assessment.
At the same time we must say that the oldest examples of R1a found in BuLGaria Varna Necropolis are older than years, much earlier than the Kurgan culture of R1a and R1b people of the Black Sea - Caspian Sea steppe prairie region. Can you send me that? Thanks Wolfgang. I have no idea why they did not use other genomes' samples like Gujaratis from Houston GIH or the several Pakistani ones but worry not someone will and soon.
The GIH have been checked. All the Genomes samples have been checked. That's how many of the new SNPs have been found. The site? What site?
Your blog has not updated in two years incidentally. THat is because I need new info, in addition to this I have R1a so I would really appreciate the data.High throughput sequencing methods have completely transformed the study of human Y chromosome variation by offering a genome-scale view on genetic variation retrieved from ancient human remains in context of a growing number of high coverage whole Y chromosome sequence data from living populations from across the world.
The ancient Y chromosome sequences are providing us the first exciting glimpses into the past variation of male-specific compartment of the genome and the opportunity to evaluate models based on previously made inferences from patterns of genetic variation in living populations. Analyses of the ancient Y chromosome sequences are challenging not only because of issues generally related to ancient DNA work, such as DNA damage-induced mutations and low content of endogenous DNA in most human remains, but also because of specific properties of the Y chromosome, such as its highly repetitive nature and high homology with the X chromosome.
Shotgun sequencing of uniquely mapping regions of the Y chromosomes to sufficiently high coverage is still challenging and costly in poorly preserved samples. To increase the coverage of specific target SNPs capture-based methods have been developed and used in recent years to generate Y chromosome sequence data from hundreds of prehistoric skeletal remains.
Besides the prospects of testing directly as how much genetic change in a given time period has accompanied changes in material culture the sequencing of ancient Y chromosomes allows us also to better understand the rate at which mutations accumulate and get fixed over time. This review considers genome-scale evidence on ancient Y chromosome diversity that has recently started to accumulate in geographic areas favourable to DNA preservation.
More specifically the review focuses on examples of regional continuity and change of the Y chromosome haplogroups in North Eurasia and in the New World. For decades, mtDNA had been a target of choice in population genetic studies because of its high mutation rate and high density of polymorphic markers Wilson et al. Also, because for any unique sequence in the autosomal, X or Y chromosome locus there are many hundreds or even thousands of copies of mtDNA means that this maternally inherited locus was more likely to work in cases where only a very small number of molecules had survived Krings et al.
HTS technologies have significantly increased the rate at which sequence data can be generated and make accessible surviving chunks of DNA that are shorter than the size of a PCR polymerase chain reaction amplicon Orlando et al. They have reduced the costs of sequencing and opened the prospects of assessing the variation of human populations, both modern and ancient, at the scale of entire genomes Genomes Project et al. These technological advances Orlando et al.
Ancient DNA presents us the opportunity to directly examine which Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs and haplotypes were present at different time periods in regions that support long-term survival of ancient DNA. It is perhaps not surprising that archaeological sites from high latitude areas Hofreiter et al. These studies, as reviewed in further detail below, have provided us the first glimpses of the dynamics of aY haplogroup composition and frequency changes in transects of time and allow us to test hypotheses based on earlier phylogeographic inferences made from the Y chromosome data of presently living populations.
While there is a general agreement in the definition of the basic haplogroups A, B, C, etc. For clarity, the names of sub-clades used here are suffixed by the defining SNP-marker name, as suggested previously Karmin et al. Similarly to the extent to which our earlier views on peopling of continental regions such as Europe based on inferences made from extant mtDNA variation have changed in the light of new ancient mtDNA evidence Bollongino et al.
In this review, methodological aspects of ancient Y chromosome work will be first discussed with a focus on recent HTS research based on shotgun and capture approaches. Challenges common to all ancient DNA studies include those related to calling human polymorphic variants from short and damaged sequence reads that are derived from a mix of different organisms. Highly repetitive nature of the Y chromosome combined with its high sequence homology with the X chromosome Skaletsky et al.
These issues, together with the paternal inheritance of Y chromosome, its haploid nature and high linkage between physically distant SNPs, impact on choices of the bioinformatics methods of downstream data analysis.
They define the restrictions and specifics how the aY sequence data should be processed and what are the limitations for the interpretations made from such data. Finally, the demographic histories European and North American populations will be briefly reviewed in the light of recently emerged Y chromosome evidence from ancient DNA studies. Two different approaches, shotgun and hybridization capture-based sequencing, have been used in recent ancient DNA studies to assess the variation of ancient Y chromosomes.
In all genome-scale studies, shotgun sequencing is typically used firstly in the screening phase. Having sufficient coverage of the Y chromosome SNP data in ancient samples is important for mapping them correctly to the phylogenetic tree and for examining the relationship among multiple ancient samples in parallel.
First, low coverage of data can have an undesirable effect on the inferences of the positioning of ancient samples in a tree in relation to high coverage modern Y chromosome sequence data, and, in particular, for the estimation of branch lengths of the phylogeny as exemplified in Fig.
Besides the coverage a measure of how many sites of the reference genome are covered by data in a given sampleit is also the sequencing depth the number of reads covering a site at each given site that contributes to the branch length estimates as sites covered by only one or two reads tend to have a high rate of false positive sequencing errors. Second, when pooling from many ancient samples, data analysis methods that rely on allele frequency comparisons of individual SNPs require reasonable number of overlapping sites covered by data in multiple samples.
Predictably, the more low coverage samples are included in the analyses the less overlapping SNPs remain available for downstream data analyses. Effect of low coverage of the data and post-mortem damage on the inferences of branch lengths and on the phylogenetic mapping of mutations to the tree.
A general example of phylogenetic relationships between one high coverage modern M1 and two low coverage ancient A1 and A2 samples is shown.
The number of mutations mapping to each branch is shown on both trees.Welcome to Y-chromosomal Haplogroup R1a1a. Smaller populations can aslo be found in Scandanavia, the UK and southern Europe.
Members: 21 Latest Activity: Feb 3, Share Tweet Facebook. I discovered, that the R1a1a people was the sarmatian-scythian people! I have R1a1a and on ftdna. Started by Balogh Attila. Last reply by William Farrar Jun 29, I just joined.
I am the admin for the Farrar DNA project, www. Started by William Farrar Jun 11, I've created a Sliwinski surname project page at www.
Started by Robert Sliwinski Aug 24, I had my brother test for me through 23andMe and he came back R1a1a. Our earliest known paternal ancestor is Jan Dziemianczyk from near Bialystok, just over the border into what is modern-day Bialorus.
The family self-identifies as Polish. Are there any good calculators that work with 23andMe for Y-haplogroups? Haplogroup: R1a1a Shorthand: R-M Hello Andre, I suggest that you have some SNP tests done, if you have not already to determine which branch of R1a1a you are in. Some R1a1a's are not Slavic. If you tested with them then join the group. It is curious to know that even thinking that my ancestors were german, because they spoke german and have german lastname "Hamann", in real that are from slavic ancestral origin, something that I found out after doing my Y-DNA test.
And the region they were from was always a german-polish bordery change, it reflects exactly from were they were from. True the Y DNA projects seem to be making discoveries, in part because individuals are interested enough to do the "walk the Y" or whatever it is called, I might be mistaken, but in this case it seems almost the amateurs are trumping scientist for discoveries; it seems fully confirmed "Old Scandinavian" Y haplogroup holder, like myself might be less than Sorry folks!
I need to get back into this site again and answer your questions as best as I can. Plus they are providing geographical and ancestral group connections.Haplogroup R1a is one of the major classifications called clades of Y-chromosome types found in human male lines.
It is widespread all across Eurasia. The table below collates information from a number of such sample studies, with incidence frequencies in sample data reported as percentages, along with the associated sample sizes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Terai 1 57 NA 0.
Terai 2 77 NA 0. Terai 37 NA 0. British 25 NA NA 0. American Journal of Human Genetics. BMC Genetics. PLOS One. Bibcode : PLoSO Battaglia, V.
Luca; Underhill, Peter A. Kharkov, V. Kharkov; Stepanov, V. Lell, Jeffrey T. Boyle, C. Renfrew, and M. Levine, eds. Ancient interactions: east and west in Eurasia. November"The peopling of modern Bosnia-Herzegovina: Y-chromosome haplogroups in the three main ethnic groups"Annals of Human Genetics69 Pt 6 : —63, doi : Nasidze, I.